In September 2015, news of Volkswagen's prolonged dishonesty regarding the U.S Clean Air Act and air pollution tests wiped out close to $17.6 billion in their market value — making the stock of the largest automaker in the world plunge 23% according to
. This emission scandal highlighted the need and importance of environmental, social, and governance criteria (ESG) in evaluating the risk factor of potential investments in companies. More than ever, investors are looking beyond financial returns and want the companies they invest in to be responsible for their environmental impact, the conditions of labor, and other behaviors that have a profound effect on the planet and people. ESG data provides a way to hold companies accountable for their actions beyond the PR campaigns and potential “
” their marketing departments put out there. But how is ESG data collected, analyzed, and reported?